Japanese culture and mentality in the country's history has always been influenced by several specific factors, among which was of great importance isolated insular position of the country, its geographical and climatic features, which finds its expression in a peculiar way Japanese people behave towards each other, their attitude towards their community and even their homeland. However, the formation of the national character relies on an elaborate system of education. In the present work, the second in the series of "Amazing Japan", the authors attempted to analyze the features of the process of Japanese education of personality, the foundation of what is laid in the early childhood. In recent times, personality aspects in the history and culture of Japan are increasingly becoming the object of special study of Russian Japanologists. This effect occurs because Japanese civilization actually has a number of features, familiarity with which makes you want to learn more, and the more you learn, the more you want to disclose its "secrets". Nevertheless, to better understand and experience features of the Japanese character, one should begin with a study of "the anatomy of education of the personality", the foundations of its formation. In this monograph, the authors offer the reader in the first place, to draw attention to the fact that the process of education of the citizen in Japan consists of many parts, which are then folded into one vast concept: a person called "Japanese". The authors tried to decipher the specific code of behavior of this individual, the secrets of his attitude and values. The emphasis in the book is that parents traditionally lay the Japanese mentality from early childhood and it evolves during person’s entire life.